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This Parsha begins the last of the Five Books of The
Torah, Sefer Devarim. This Book is also called Mishneh
Torah, "Repetition of the Torah" (hence the
Greek/English title Deuteronomy).
Sefer Devarim relates what Moshe told Bnai Yisrael during the last five weeks of his life, as they prepared to cross the Jordan into Eretz Yisrael. Moshe reviews the mitzvot, stressing the change of lifestyle they are about to undergo: from the supernatural existence of the desert under Moshe's guidance to the apparently natural life they will experience under Yehoshua's leadership in the Land.
The central theme this week is the sin of the spies, the Meraglim. The Parsha opens with Moshe alluding to the sins of the previous generation who died in the desert. He describes what would have happened if they hadn't sinned by sending spies into Eretz Yisrael. G-d would have given them without a fight all the land from the Mediterranean to the Euphrates, including the lands of Ammon, Moav, and Edom.
He details the subtle sins that culminate in the sin of the spies, and reviews at length this incident and its results: the entire generation would die in the desert, Moshe would not enter Eretz Yisrael. He reminds them that their immediate reaction to G-d's decree was to want to "go up and fight" to redress the sin; he recounts how they wouldn't listen when he told them not to go, that they no longer merited vanquishing their enemies miraculously. They ignored him and suffered a massive defeat. They were not allowed to fight with the kingdoms of Esav, Moav or Ammon, these lands were not to be part of the map of Eretz Yisrael in the meantime.
When the conquest of Canaan will begin with Sichon and Og, it will be via natural warfare.